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Recent Articles

Pot Pourri - A Bundle of Findings

This 63 year old gentleman, known to suffer from retroviral disease for the past 12 years, first presented in 2011 with carcinoma of caecum, for which he underwent a radical right hemicolectomy. Following this, he presented with descending colon malignancy for which completion colectomy with ileo sigmoid anastomosis was performed (2013). In 2014 he had a right inguinal hernia for which total extraperitoneal hernioplasty was done (TEP) and a mesh tacked with the structures in the posterior wall of inguinal canal.

High Glucose Modulates Responsiveness to Estrogens of Human Derived Female Cultured Osteoblasts and in Osteoblastic Cell Lines

Human female- derived osteoblast- like cells in culture (hObs) and the cell lines (SaOS2 and hFOB) express mRNAs involved in bone biology and physiology such as estrogen receptor α (ERα) and α (ERα), vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1α, 25 (OH) vitamin D3 hydroxylase (1OHase) and 12 and 15 lipoxygenases (12LO and 15LO). These mRNAs are modulated by estrogenic compounds. Since the skeletal protective effects of estrogens are not discernible in diabetic women, we tested the estrogenic modulations of these parameters in cells grown in growth medium containing high glucose (HG; 9.0g/L; 44mM) compared to normal glucose (NG; 4.5g/L; 22mM). HG significantly increased DNA synthesis (DNA) and creatine kinase specific activity (CK). Stimulations of DNA but not of CK by estradiol-17β (E2), by 4, 4’, 4’’-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazol-1, 3, 5- triyl] tris-phenol (PPT; ERa specific agonist), or by 2, 3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; ER β specific agonist), were modulated by HG. HG Itself up regulated the expression of mRNA of 12LO and 15LO and to less extent ERβ and VDR, but had no effect on ERα and 1OHase mRNA expression. The different hormonal treatments modulated the expressions of VDR, 1OHase, 12LO and 15LO mRNAs which were reduced in HG, whereas the induction of their products 1α, 25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25D) and 12- and 15- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12 and 15 HETE) were only slightly affected by HG. The exact mechanism of HG effects on bone cell responses and its relationship to human bone physiology is not yet clear.