In recent years, an increasing number of new designer-drugs have increased the demands for general toxicological screening . Limited screening based on immunoassays is commonly used in clinical toxicology, whereas more comprehensive approaches are common in forensic toxicology such as screening based on Gas or Liquid Chromatography (GC or LC) approaches.
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This study employed a case-series design with infants aged between 1 and 4 months. Infants with symptoms of constipation were recruited at two paediatric clinics in Barcelona, Spain. At the time of recruitment, all infants were fed a standard formula made with cow milk protein. Infants were provided with a formula based on goat milk protein and 55% of total fat from goat milk. After 3 weeks, stool consistency, stool frequency, crying and infant behaviour were measured. Fat, nitrogen, water and carbohydrates in the stools were also determined by NIRA (near-infrared reflectance analysis).
By reporting a case series from a referral hospital we aimed to determine the treatment options and outcomes of one of the serious complications of the labour uterine atony refractory to the medical treatment. In this study, a total of 58 postpartum uterine atony cases refractory to uterotonic treatment and managed with intrauterine balloon tamponade, B-Lynch suture, internal iliac artery ligation or hysterectomy was a retrospectively analyzed. Initially, thirty two cases managed with intrauterine Bakri balloon tamponade and six B-Lynch compression sutures alone, in eight cases both procedures were done together. Eight cases managed with internal iliac artery ligation and four hysterectomies. Our success rate with intrauterine Bakri balloon tamponade, B-Lynch compression suture and internal iliac artery ligation were 84.4%, 83.3%, 75% respectively in stopping postpartum haemorrhage regarding uterine atony and the most successfull rate was obtained with the Bakri balloon tamponade in the combination with B-Lynch compression suture 87.5%. The median estimated blood loss was 2018ml, intraoperative median hemoglobin was 5.8 mg/dl and the median amount of blood transfused was five units, the median volume infused into balloon was 285ml; balloon was in place for a median duration of 36 hours. In 6 cases Bakri balloon tamponade with or without B-Lynch compression sutures failed to stop haemorrhage and hysterectomy required. In two patients Asherman’s syndrome and infertility, in two patients’ amenore were developed and uterine prolapse was observed in 2 patients, one of which was uterine necrosis. No maternal mortality was observed.
Immunodeficiency refers to failure of immune system to encounter infections by different microbial pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and protozoan. This is called acquired or secondary immunodeficiency syndrome (SIS).